Time for a Beach Break!


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Philosophy of Fashion


How Is Style Different from Fashion?

For all spheres of human activity, there are those who are free and there are those who are in chains. We all understand what it means to be in literal captivity and most of us understand spiritual captivity, when it is our will and not our bodies that are kept from freedom. The will is just the motive force, to doing-this or doing-that, removable only by head or spinal trauma, surgery and sleep. It is our thoughts that move the will to its doings. When we think for ourselves, we are free. When others think for us, we cannot be free.

The wearing of clothes is a field of human activity, one engaged in every day. “Not the nudists!” you may say, but the refusal to wear clothes is as much a choice of how to present the body as to not wear clothes. What is generally called fashion, then, is the area of human activity concerned with the presentation of the body, i.e. with appearance.

One may think about what one wears or one may not. If thinking for oneself is freedom, then one cannot be free unless one thinks for oneself about what to wear. Everyone deliberates, but not all deliberation is thinking for oneself. Deliberation is the bare minimum of choosing. With deliberation one decides upon one course of action or another. But if the principles from which one deliberates are from someone else, the conclusions one reaches are not one’s own; one’s thinking is being done by another.

The fashion industry manufactures more than clothing. It manufactures principles. It tells you not what to wear, but what to want to wear. When one wears clothes because they are ‘in fashion,’ the principle from which one deliberates is from outside oneself. Others have done the thinking. How can you be free when you let the masses tell you what to wear?

On the other hand, there are subcultures that are aggressively anti-fashion. There has never been anything ‘in fashion’ about the gothic look, the punk look, or even the subcultureless wild costumes young rebels concoct. Insofar as their look derives from the fashion of their subculture, still they are not free, since the mores of the subculture has done the thinking for them. Insofar as their look derives from the intention of rebellion, then they are no more free than the fashion slaves. For if conformity is ever mindlessly saying ‘Yes’ to whatever is in currency, then rebellion is ever mindlessly saying ‘No’ to whatever is in currency. Conformity and rebellion are two aspects of the same phenomenon; both have subscribed to a thoughtless and abitrary mechanism for their principle of deliberation.

Thinking for oneself takes no account of what is in fashion. That is not to say the external world has no influence whatsoever. It presents a range of considerations. If it is winter, one doesn’t wear sandals; in our modern era, there is little excuse to wear a codpiece or a toga; and it would be unusual, to say the least, to wear an ostentatious halloween costume all year ’round. Thinking for oneself means one is free in what one wears: you wear what you wear because it is what you really want to wear, what you really like, what expresses your tastes, values, interests, and personality, given the general aim: the presentation of the body. To be autonomous in any field of human activity is to originally pursue the end of that field. Since the end of wearing clothes is the presentation of the body, one finds an original, personally-expressive way of presenting oneself; you must decide how you want to present yourself and arrange the means accordingly. It will make a difference if you want to look pretty, want to look formal, or want to look eccentric; and it should be a difference that it is you who will be doing the looking pretty, formal, or eccentric. There may well be overlap, even considerable overlap, with what is in fashion; yet when you are free, you wear it knowing why you wear it; you wear it confidently knowing you wear what you wear not because it’s in fashion but because it is a part of yourstyle, the original way you present your body. Continue reading

The Enigma of Beauty


Nicole Anderson models a pair of Manolo Blahnik stiletto heels and a white shift dress for the fashion press in New York City. A center of sartorial taste making in the U.S., the city attracts the fashion industry’s elite to its week of shows each spring and fall.

Photograph by Jodi Cobb

Written by Cathy Newman

For National Geographic

Republished from the pages of National Geographic magazine

Sheli Jeffry is searching for beauty. As a scout for Ford, one of the world’s top model agencies, Jeffry scans up to 200 young women every Thursday afternoon. Inside agency headquarters in New York, exquisite faces stare down from the covers of Vogue, Glamour, and Harper’s Bazaar. Outside, young hopefuls wait for their big chance.

Jeffry is looking for height: at least five feet nine (1.8 meters). She’s looking for youth: 13 to 19 years old. She’s looking for the right body type.

What is the right body type?

Continue reading